The M³ pilot project, initiated by the Bavarian State Ministry for Education and Culture, forms the context for this research study. The long-term project constitutes an authentic development environment. Therefore the observations from the study can easily be generalized to what is actually happening in the classroom.
The following research question resulted from the concerns of the ministry and from prior research on the use of handheld devices. "What are the effects of long-term handheld use in a realistic research field and what factors influence these effects?" This research question is divided into several sub-questions and each has been investigated using quantitative and qualitative methods.