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This paper examines the effects of the first year of a two-year project to investigate formative assessment in a networked classroom. Participants were divided into two groups; one group receiving professional development on formative assessment with networked technology while the second group received professional development only on formative assessment. Data were gathered on participants’ knowledge of formative assessment, teacher pedagogical content knowledge, mathematics background, and attitudes toward technology. Student data were collected and analyzed to examine the effects of teacher variables on student achievement.
TI-73, TI-Navigator, Formative Assessment, Professional Development, Middle School, TPACK, Attitude toward technology, achievement
How does a multi-representational mathematical ICT tool mediate teachers’ mathematical and pedagogical knowledge concerning variance and invariance?Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
This study aims to examine how teachers’ mathematical and pedagogical knowledge develop as they learn to use a multi-representational technological tool, the TI-Nspire handheld device and computer software. It is conducted as an enquiry into the learning trajectories of a group of secondary mathematics teachers as they begin to use the device with a focus on their interpretations of mathematical variance and invariance. The research is situated within an English secondary school setting and it seeks to reveal how teachers’ ideas shape, and are shaped by, their use of the technology through a scrutiny of the lesson artefacts, semi-structured interviews and lesson observations. Analysis of the data reveals the importance of the idea of the ‘hiccup’; that is the perturbation experienced by teachers during lessons stimulated by their use of the technology, which illuminates discontinuities within teachers’ knowledge. The study concludes that the use of such a multi-representational tool can substantially change the way in which both the teachers and their students perceive the notions of variance and invariance within dynamic mathematical environments. Furthermore, the study classifies the types of perturbations that underpin this conclusion. The study also contributes to the discourse on the design of mathematical problems and their associated instrumentation schemes in which linked multiple representations offer a new environment for developing mathematical meanings. This thesis makes an original contribution to understanding what and how teachers learn about the concept of mathematical variance and invariance within a technological environment.
Hiccup, Instrumental genesis, TI-Nspire, UK, Secondary Mathematics, mathematics education, mathematical generalization, multiple representations, teacher development, professional development, variance and invariance
Twenty-four seventh-grade teachers participating in a research project focused on formative assessment in a  etworked classroom were given pre-and post- assessments of content knowledge for teaching. This paper examines several  nteresting differences in content knowledge for teaching  etween and among the two groups and suggests possible links between the differences and the content of the two models of  professional development in which the participants were engaged.
TI-73, TI-Navigator, Professional Development, Math Content Knowledge, Middle School
High School Mathematics Teacher Professional Development in Data Analysis, Probability, and StatisticsUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
Quantifying Uncertainty and Analyzing Numerical Trends (QUANT) 1 is a yearlong professional
development program for high school mathematics teachers that is designed to develop their statistical
proficiency for teaching. The approach used to develop such proficiency is technological pedagogical
content knowledge in the areas of measurement, data collection, data analysis, probability, and
statistics, combined with a classroom implementation focus on selecting, setting up, and enacting cognitively demanding tasks. This paper describes the QUANT program, its aims, the role of technology in the program, and the results from a series of exploratory investigations to measure and evaluate the program’s effectiveness. These studies have involved a total of 23 practicing teachers, and they have been used to refine and shape this ongoing professional development effort.
TI-Nspire CAS, Probability, Professional Development, High School
Research Note #15 - Systemic vs. one-time teacher professional development: what does research say?Use SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
A growing consensus of researchers and practitioners has found that systemic, ongoing teacher professional development is more effective than traditional one-time workshops.
Research Note, Professional Development
Review of the research: Nine components of effective professional developmentUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
An interpretive review of 14 experimental and quasi-experimental studies identified these 9 attributes of effective professional development.
• Address student learning needs
• Incorporate hands-on technology use
• Be job-embedded
• Have application to specific curricula
• Address knowledge, skills and beliefs
• Occur over time
• Occur with colleagues
• Provide technical assistance and support to teachers
• Incorporate evaluation
Professional Development, research review, components
The Design and Delivery of a Professional Development Program to ImplementUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
As seen in the descriptions of the two PD models, one of the primary differences between the models is the order and emphasis on formative assessment and on the use of TI-Navigator for formative assessment in the delivery. This design was generated due to the difficulties identified with implementing formative assessment in classroom. To use
technology to implement formative assessment adds another level of complexity. Project FANC is trying to determine if there is a difference, based on student outcomes, between
these two designs. After two years of PD, to check if there is a difference in student outcomes, pre and post student data is being collected. In addition, data is continually being collected on how teachers are implementing each of the PD models and the effects of these models on student learning. For a more in-depth analysis of teacher implementation, case studies of ten teachers are being conducted to give a picture of various degrees of implementation of formative assessment strategies using the TINavigator. Full results on the project will become available starting in December 2010.
TI-Navigator, TI-73, Middle School, Formative Assessment, Professional Development, PD
The Effect of Algebra Graphing Calculator Professional Development on Math Gains in a Florida High SchoolUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
This paper details the motivation, background, and analysis for studying the effect that an Increasing Achievement on Algebra Assessment (IAAA) workshop for a group of Florida high school teachers had on student pe/jormance in statewide testing. The main focus ofthe workshop was to provide participating teachers with both instruction and activities related to problem-solving techniques using the TI-83 Plus handheld graphing calculator that the teachers could then use in an effort to better prepare their students for state-wide testing. Overall, students (n = 328) who were taught by IAAA-trained teachers between consecutive annual statewide assessments had a greater gain in test scores than students (n = 202) who were taught by non-trained teachers. In particular, the data indicates a significant increase in scores for students taught by IAAA-trained teachers in a general mathematics course, as compared to no significant increase in scores for students taking that same course taught by non-trained teachers.
Algebra, graphing calculator, Professional Development, Florida, FCAT, TI-83
The Effects of Two Professional Development Models on Teachers' Knowledge About Assessment and Confidence, Self-Efficacy, and Interest Toward TechnologyUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
This paper reports on two different models of professional development that were created to investigate the use of formative assessment in a networked classroom. Participants were divided into two groups with one group receiving formative assessment without networked technology in the first year while the second group received formative assessment along with technology. Data was gathered on
participants’ knowledge of formative assessment and their attitudes toward the use of technology.
TI-73, TI-Navigator, Middle School, Formative Assessment, Professional Development, Attitude toward technology
The potential of a classroom network to support teacher feedback; A study in statistics educationUse SHIFT+ENTER to open the menu (new window).
In mathematics education teachers experience a constant lack of time to properly instruct their students. In the Netherlands the contact time for mathematics in secondary education during the last fifteen years again declined. Mathematics is also perceived as difficult by students. This research focuses on the question: how can we better utilize contact time in mathematics education?
Meta-analyses of learning outcomes, such as those described by Hattie (2009), show that feedback is one of the most powerful single tools for improving learning achievements. In this study we explore the possibility of graphing calculators (GR), connected to the teacher computer through the use of a wireless network, to improve the feedback in mathematics education. First, students received immediate feedback on their worked out mathematics assignments GR and second, the teacher, usually in the next lesson, gave feedback on the work of the students, supported by an analysis of that work through the system. This study focused primarily on the development of 'data literacy' among students, while the 'algorithmic skills' were not forgotten.
In four stages, a prototype of the intervention designed, tested, evaluated and adjusted in nine groups of students. The mathematics teachers and their students are generally enthusiastic about the results. They for instance recommend to spend half of each lesson working this way. Though, the teachers explicitly state that they have experienced a tough workload while mastering this way of teaching. The study makes the conditions to be met before the method can be successful explicit.
TI-Nspire CAS, Statistics education, Secondary School, Feedback, Professional Development, Classroom Networking, TI-Navigator, TI-89, The Netherlands, Graphing Calculator, Design research, case study