| | 2010 | This paper examines the effects of the first year of a two-year project to investigate formative assessment in a networked classroom. Participants were divided into two groups; one group receiving professional development on formative assessment with networked technology while the second group received professional development only on formative assessment. Data were gathered on participants’ knowledge of formative assessment, teacher pedagogical content knowledge, mathematics background, and attitudes toward technology. Student data were collected and analyzed to examine the effects of teacher variables on student achievement. | TI-73, TI-Navigator, Formative Assessment, Professional Development, Middle School, TPACK, Attitude toward technology, achievement |

| | 2012 | A landmark symposium, held at PME-NA in 2002, claimed “New theoretical, methodological, and design frameworks for engaging classroom learning are provoked and supported by the highly interactive and group-centered capabilities of a new generation of classroom–based networks.” (Stroup et al, 2002). Since that time, researchers have used the new technology affordances of classroom networks to design activities, software, and pedagogies to structure productive learning experiences. These networks enable all students to contribute simultaneously to a group mathematical experience. In a basic scenario, each student in a classroom has a computer or handheld device to share mathematical contributions (e.g. points, graphs, algebraic expressions, etc.) and the network interconnect the mathematical contributions and communal experiences can be shared via a projected public display. As a result of multiple investigations, important journal papers and book chapters have been written; doctorates have been obtained on this topic; two large scale experimental studies have returned results; commercial products have been launched; and implementations have spread from the United States to Asia, Europe, and elsewhere. The overall objective of this symposium, to be held approximately 10 years later, is to engage a diverse group of active investigators to consider the nature and extent of progress over the past 10 years. Specifically, we aim to: 1. Review and reflect on the major research findings. 2. Present and discuss refinements to theory. 3. Share and cross-fertilize emerging frameworks. 4. Raise and debate the important issues that lie ahead. Active researchers will present diverse and contrasting perspectives from their work in the use of network technologies in mathematics education. The diverse perspectives focus on classrooms’ discourse, creativity, participation and collaboration. They also focus on large scale research results measured both traditional empirical designs and innovative regression discontinuity designs. Questions are raised about missing resources and the use of classroom networks is extended to support deeper analysis of student mathematical thinking. The preparation of this session led to extensive discussion and debates among the researchers, suggesting that the session at AERA will be lively, controversial, and stimulating. | TI-Navigator, Generative Instruction, Argumentation, Collaborative learning, Regression Discontinuity |

| | 2010 | Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U. S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with graphing calculators only. The theoretical framework suggests that active learning environments with timely, targeted, and accurate feedback loops facilitated by CCT are likely to produce improved student achievement in Algebra 1. In the first three years of this study, significant effect sizes on student achievement ranged from 0.19 to 0.37. These medium-sized effects are relatively rare for large-scale randomized experiments in education. | TI-Navigator, CCMS |

| | 2010 | Eight high schools from five school districts located in the northern half of Mississippi participated in the study. These school partners provided facilities and logistical assistance for the administration of the pre- and post-tests. They collaborated with the project staff by providing technology support and submitting demographic data upon request. Partners in the schools supported professional development efforts by coordinating schedules with project personnel, as well as enabling and encouraging teachers to attend the sessions. This excerpt presents data analysis summaries.
| TI-Navigator, Algebra, Mississippi |

| | 2009 | The original Richardson MathForward Program analysis for 2005 – 2007 is reviewed here and supplemented with a revised analysis to account for certain assumptions not addressed previously. While the general conclusions have not changed from the original report, they are expanded upon here with revised values that are believed to be a more accurate representation of what was happening to students in the study between 2005 and 2007. | MathForward, Richardson ISD, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2012 | The Phase 2 ALN research yielded the following key findings: • TI-Nspire Navigator is an important component of the ALN resource suite that complements other TI resources (i.e. ALN and TI-Nspire) • The research found a marginally significant increase in learning associated with TI-Nspire Navigator, above and beyond TI-Nspire and ALN. (This result may be an underestimate of the full impact, due to implementation variation and other factors inherent to the research.) • The ALN resource suite influenced teacher pedagogy to emphasize deeper learning for students • Teachers believe that the ALN resource suite contributed to increased student engagement and supported deeper student learning • In comparison with their less experienced peers, teachers with more experience with TI-Nspire and TI-Nspire Navigator: ▫ Were more likely to shift their pedagogy to include more high-level instructional activities ▫ Reported that their students were more engaged and learned more ▫ Had students who learned more math • Teachers who used the technology more frequently also reported that their students were more engaged and learned more math
| TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, Algebra, Algebra Nspired, California |

| | 2007 | With the TI-Navigator system, 27% percent more students scored in the 90% range on the New York State Regents Math A for 2007, when compared to the same teacher’s non-TI-Navigator system class in 2005 | Case study, TI-84, TI-Navigator, Math AB, New York, Graphing Calculators, white |

| | 2007 | In this systemic improvement program, district-wide proficiency on the standardized state test climbed steadily during three years from 39% to 62% in both 7th and 8th grades. | Case Study, TI-Navigator, Graphing Calculator, MathForward, Algebra, Grade 7, Grade 8, Pre-Algebra, Cognitive Tutor |

| | 2007 | Introducing TI-Navigator led to more questions being asked which often led to discussions. Also, students often interpreted questions differently. This allowed for even more discussion. | Case Study, TI-Navigator, TI-84, Grade 7-8, Middle School, Graphing Calculators, Canada, French |

| | 2009 | I can look at the Navigator screen and I am able to diagnose the problem areas and fix them for the individual(s) before moving on in my content. And, … a 100% made gains on the FCAT
| Case Study, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Grade 5, Elementary, Florida, Graphing Calculators, white |

| | 2009 | Formative assessment with TI-Navigator has helped this teacher to deal efficiently with misconceptions, and to use class time more efficiently. In the process, his thinking about teaching and learning has evolved | Case study, TI-Navigator, Graphing Calculators, Formative Assessment, underachievers, misconceptions |

| | 2009 | By monitoring the students’ activities whilst they were answering the problems I was able to see the wide range of approaches that the students used. For example, one student chose to insert a Spreadsheet page to create a probability distribution table to help him reach a solution. Using Screen Capture in this way gave me a real insight into the way that the students went about solving the problems. It also supported the students to see a range of strategies and learn from each other.
| Case Study, Netherlands, Math D, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator, binominal test, tests, Secondary School |

| | 2009 | The students have been using their own TI-NspireTM handhelds since September 2008 and I started to use TI-NspireTM NavigatorTM with them in May 2009. In this lesson sequence I used the File transfer, Screen Capture, Live Presenter features and I plugged in the GoTemp probe to my TI-NspireTM handheld to do the data collection. In this activity Screen Capture was an essential tool to enable me to pick out a graph I wanted to discuss with the class and this also told the students that it is their contribution and not the teacher’s who does everything all the time. With TI-NspireTM NavigatorTM the students were part of the contribution in a completely different way and it felt as though they appreciated their increased involvement. The value of letting the students discover different parts of maths is enormous and I think it will trigger off new approaches from the students that I don’t know yet. It is very exciting, I think, and maybe also a bit scary? | Case Study, Sweden, IB school, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator, Secondary School, exponential functions, probe, File Transfer, Screen Capture, Live Presenter |

| | 2009 | George Watson’s College is a mixed independent school and I have been using the TI-NspireTM NavigatorTM since October 2008 with most of my classes (students: 11-12 year olds following the compulsory secondary mathematics curriculum). In this lesson I used the File transfer, Screen Capture and Class Analysis features. I thought that this lesson activity gave my students an opportunity to interpret mathematics by devising and describing in words the general relationships between angles. Some of the weaker students preferred to describe things in terms of the numbers shown on their diagram in its static form. However, as I was able to identify who these people were using Screen Capture, I was able to individually guide them towards trying to describe the relationship in more general terms using words, or angle labelling conventions, rather than just numbers. Using Screen Capture enabled me to effectively target individual support to those in the class who needed it most.
| Case Study, Scotland, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator, Secondary School, angles, Screen Capture, File Transfers, Class Analysis |

| | 2009 | The students have been using their own TI-Nspire handhelds since September 2008 and I started to use TI-Nspire Navigator with them in May 2009. I used the File transfer and Screen capture features during the lesson. The TI-Nspire file also included some question that I was able to analyse using Class Analysis after the lesson. The activity was excellent for the students to find out that angles subtending the same arc are equal or that the angle subtending the arc at the centre is twice the angle subtending the arc. The use of the Screen Capture view and being able to collect the students TI-NspireTM files enabled me to get a very good idea of the students’ learning during the lesson. There were a few students who would have benefited from more time on the exploratory tasks – they were less confident to answer the questions - whereas others were able to progress very quickly. Most of the students were able to generate the required theorems which meant we could move onto to justifying and proving them in the subsequent lessons. | Case Study, Sweden, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator, Secondary School, IB school, Screen Capture, Class Analysis, circles |

| | 2009 | Blue Coat School is a state secondary school for students aged 11-18 years in Walsall, UK. I have been using TI-Nspire Navigator since May 2009 and this was the first time this class had used the TI-NspireTM handhelds or TI-Nspire Navigator. In this lesson I used Screen Capture and Live Presenter. This class of eight students were working at a level below their age-related expectation. The students were very engaged throughout the lesson and, despite being some of the weakest students in their year group, they were very motivated by their individual contribution to the class task and were also keen to support each other with ideas and approaches. The students grew in their confidence to use the correct mathematical vocabulary to describe their patterns and the position of the geometric objects within it. | Case Study, UK,TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator, Secondary School, line, simmetry, Screnn Capture, Live presenter |

| | 2009 | The students, who are all following a technological programme, have been using their own TI-NspireTM handhelds since September 2008 and I started to use TI-Nspire Navigator with them in May 2009. Initially, there were a number of students who were unsure about how to generate a linear function to go through a given coordinate point and by using the Screen Capture view they were able to see how to get started. It also let me see who needed my support. The Quick Polls encouraged all of the students to give their opinion and, from this I was able to see students change their point of view as they listened to my explanations and the other students’ reasoning. The students showed that they were beginning to really understand why a particular coordinate point lay on a particular straight line and how to find the equation of a straight line through a given point | Case Study, Sweden, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator, Secondary School, lines, points |

| | 2009 | Blue Coat School is a state secondary school for students aged 11-18 years in Walsall, UK. Some of the students in this class have been using the TI-Nspire handhelds since 2008 and I have been using TI-NspireTM Navigator with these students since May 2009. In this lesson I used File transfer, Screen Capture, Live Presenter and File collection. All of the students were able to see very quickly that, when the condition for the areas being equal was true, the triangles appeared to be right angled and, having recorded this ‘rule’ in their own words, I felt that we were in a good position to try to apply this to a new problem in a subsequent lesson when we would look at more traditional problems involving Pythagoras’ theorem. | Case study, UK, TI-Nspire-Ti-Navigator,TI-Nspire Navigator, Secondary School, File transfer, Screen Capture, Live Presenter, File collection |

| | 2009 | Scholengemeenschap Sophianum is a state secondary school in the Netherlands. I have been using TI-Nspire handhelds and software with my students since September 2007 and TI-Nspire Navigator since May 2009. In this lesson I used the File transfer, Screen Capture and Live Presenter features. In this lesson my students had needed to think mathematically by considering the properties of special cases and counter examples. These were made more obvious to the whole class due to the number of different screens that could be displayed at one time with Screen Capture. Using TI-Nspire Navigator in this lesson enabled my students to see each others’ work and this prompted a much wider discussion in the classroom than would normally happen when the students only work with the student seated next to them. | Case Study, Netherlands, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator, Secondary School, quadratic functionsFile Transfer, Screen Capture, Live presenter |

| | 2009 | George Watson’s College is a mixed independent school and I have been using the TI-Nspire Navigatorsince October 2008 with most of my classes. In this lesson I used the File transfer, Screen Capture and Quick Poll features. The students had the opportunity to explore a numerical sequence displayed to them as a graph. This forced them to look at the trends in the terms of the sequence and not just the numbers. The sharing of thoughts at the ‘half-way’ stage led in several cases of students checking some of the declarations that had been made by their peers and revising their own statements in response. | Case Study, Scotland, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator, Secondary School, recurrence relations, File Transfer, Screen Capture, Quick Poll |

| | 2009 | Davison Church of England High School for Girls is a state secondary school and I have been using the TI-Nspire handhelds with this class periodically since July 2007. In May 2009 I began to use TI-Nspire Navigator and in this I used the Screen Capture features. The use of the Screen Capture view did allow the students to begin to make the obvious connections between the different types of transformations and the effect of these on the graphs. Most of the students were able to connect the vertical translation of functions by adding a constant to their existing knowledge of changing the value of c in linear functions of the form y=mx +c. | Case Study,Uk, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator, Secondary School, transformations, functions, Screen Capture |

| | 2009 | George Watson’s College is a mixed independent school and I have been using the TI-Nspire Navigator since October 2008 with most of my classes. In this lesson I used the Screen Capture feature. The students own explorations led them to notice different features. Some students thought that the rule was to do with multiples, or with odd and even numbers whilst others were able to come up with their own correct versions of the condition. By collecting back the students’ TI-Nspire files I gained an insight into their emerging thinking. The students were also beginning to become mathematically inquisitive and explore negative and decimal values for the lengths of the triangles’ sides. | Case Study, Scotland, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator, Secondary School, triangles, Screen Capture |

| | 2011 | Now, with the use of TI-Navigator, I KNOW exactly where my students are in the Navigator activity. For one example, during the 09/10 year I was using a Match My Graph activity with a small group of geometry students reviewing algebraic concepts. With the Navigator I received feedback on each problem. | TI-Navigator, Geometry, Mathlab, TI-Nspire, TI-84, TI SmartView, Alternative School, At Risk, Special Needs, Special Education, IEP, Case Study |

| | 2011 | With a high-minority, low-income at-risk student body, TI-Navigator has become the backbone of a successful new way of engaging, high differentiated teaching of Algebra 1and 2. | Algebra, TI-84, TI-Navigator, Case Study, Hispanic, Native American, Low Income, Alternative School, AZ |

| | 2009 | CSG Liudger is a state secondary school in the Netherlands. I have been using TI-Nspire handhelds and software with this group of students since September 2007 and TI-Nspire Navigator since May 2009. In this lesson I used File transfer, Screen Capture and Live Presenter features. The students were able to use their existing knowledge of statistical variables such as the mean average and the median to confirm or refute their statistical hypotheses. They also considered how the use of different statistical graphs might support this process. | Case Study, Netherlands, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator, Secondary School, File Transfer, Screen Capture, Live Presenter, statistical variables |

| | 2009 | Blue Coat School is a state secondary school for students aged 11-18 years in Walsall, UK. This class have used the TI-NspireTM handhelds previously and this was the first time I had also used TI-NspireTM NavigatorTM with them. In this lesson I used Screen Capture. The TI-NspireTM NavigatorTM Screen Capture view enabled students to communicate their findings and consider alternative solutions - some students’ curve families were larger/different to other students’ curve families. TI-NspireTM NavigatorTM gave me continual updates on the progress the class was making so that I could target interventions better. Also students could ‘see’ that other students were progressing in ways that were different to them. Some students had clearly got screens that matched my hand-drawn diagram of a family of curves better than other students. This made them aware that the possibility existed of solving the task (as others in the room had clearly done so) | Case Study, UK, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator, Secondary School, Screen Capture, quadratic curves |

| | 2010 | The paper describes changes made by two seventh-grade teachers who are participants in project FANC. First, the use of technology prompted each teacher to reconsider his nstructional approach and the manner in which he interacted with students. In general, each teacher developed a more open-questioning form of teaching and required students to actively engage in classroom discussions as well as work collaboratively and communicate ideas to other students in class. Second, access and use of technology expanded the boundaries of the learning trajectory of students’ content understanding. Students were able to process the content in a more sophisticated way than the teachers had experienced in the past. Third, the expansion of the learning trajectories created dilemmas for each teacher in how to use the formative assessment information made available by the networked technology. Both teachers made use of these features of the networked technology, quick poll, learn check, screen capture, and activity center that enabled them to assess their students’ thinking and to provide opportunities for classroom discussion. | TI-Navigator, TI-73, Middle School, Formative Assessment |

| | 2011 | | CCMS, TI-Navigator, Algebra, Physics, TI-83 |

| | 2010 | Low-cost, portable classroom network technologies have shown great promise in recent years for improving teaching and learning in mathematics. This paper explores the impacts on student learning in mathematics when a program to introduce network technologies into mathematics classrooms is integrated into a systemic reform initiative at the district level. The study conducted compares the performance of middle and high school students who were participants in the Texas Instruments’ MathForwardTM program to students in the district not in the program. Results indicate that students at two grade levels who were in the program made greater 1-year gains in mathematics achievement than students not in the program. | MathForward, TI-84, TI-73, TI-Navigator, Middle School |

| | 2007 | For the most part, the experiment could not discern an impact as a result of providing the equipment and training for TI-Navigator. As shown in the figure below, we found a modest effect for Geometry achievement using the NWEA End of Course Geometry test. This figure shows the outcome measure in standardized units. However, this impact was not reflected in CST Geometry scores. In Algebra, while we found no overall difference, there was some evidence of a small negative impact for students scoring “below basic” on the CST and, holding pretest score constant, for English proficient students. The results of the NWEA End of Course Algebra I test did not reflect those same results. Implementation must be considered in interpreting these findings. Our surveys and observations make clear that this implementation was not a fair test of the difference TI-Navigator might make if used more extensively. Of the 19 teachers originally assigned to the treatment group, about half did not use the system at all for instruction. Of the remaining nine teachers, only three could be considered “Comprehensive-Implementers.” Of those three, only one used TI-Navigator daily. Technical glitches deterred many from using the system after previous failed attempts. Overall use may have been constrained by the fact that California prohibits calculator use on state tests. Impact on NWEA Geometry Achievement Our results also must be qualified by the fact that, while finding differences on one test, we did not find differences on the other test. The significant amount of attrition, both at the teacher and student levels, although not believed to be associated with the program being tested, raises issues about generalizability. For example, it is clear that in both experimental conditions, lower scoring students were significantly more likely to not have posttests, indicating that our findings are not applicable to the lowest scoring students in these districts. Overall, we found that the TI-Navigator affected the average number of minutes the technology was used. The teachers with TI-Navigator reported using the technology about 15 minutes more per week per class period than teachers without. Future exploratory analyses may prove useful in suggesting whether extent of usage can account for student outcomes. In particular, since TINavigator resulted in greater technology use, examining the correlation between technology use and achievement may suggest a mechanism by which TI- Navigator could be effective. Future studies of TI-Navigator will benefit from greater support for implementation. We also recommend continuing to include Geometry in the topics to which TI-Navigator is applied, since the positive result found in this experiment should be replicated. | TI-Navigator, Graphing Calculators, Geometrey, Algebra, California |

| | 2010 | During 2008-9 seven secondary mathematics teachers from England, Scotland, Netherlands and Sweden began to use a wireless classroom network to link their students’ handheld ICT devices. This paper focuses on the teachers’ reported uses of the Screen Capture feature, which were coded to reveal patterns in the emerging classroom practices. Analysis of the data revealed: increased opportunities for purposeful classroom discourse; improved formative assessment practices; and highlighted the need for teachers to choose rich examples on which to build the mathematical tasks. | TI-Navigator, Europe |

| | 2009 | This international study examined first-year use of TI-Navigator with TI-Nspire. | TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, Europe, UK, Netherlands, Scotland, Sweden |

| | 2009 | A qualitative study of TI-Nspire Navigator use in seven classrooms in five European countries found the teachers: - developed new and supported existing formative assessment practices using screen capture & presenter; -providing teachers with additional insight to enable them to provide thoughtful interventions during the lesson; -promoting purposeful classroom discourse to enrich the teacher’s awareness of students’ existing mathematical knowledge; -developing strategies for students’ peer assessment and self assessment. -enabled the development of innovative mathematics tasks; -focusing students’ attentions on making mathematical generalisations through generative questioning -creating “shared learning space” -generating the mathematical data to initiate the task
| TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire Navigator Europe, Secondary School, Qualitative, Case study |

| | 2008 | Canton is a case of a district where differences in outcomes by grade level appeared to be correlated with levels of implementation. Higher levels of implementation were linked to better outcomes, providing some support for evidence that interactive teaching methods are an important ingredient in the program’s success. In addition, Canton was an example of a district where, despite small numbers of students, MathForward had a positive, gap-closing effect for African American students. At the same time, the differences between gains in 2007 to 2008 may have been caused by factors other than MathForward, such as events that took place during the 2007-08 school year. | MathForward, Canton Local, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2012 | With the ever changing landscape of American education, it is vital for schools to provide teachers and students with the latest forms of technology that can foster a positive learning environment for all students. The advancements that have occurred in technology and education have greatly helped both students and teachers have success in the classroom. In addition, with the increase in diverse learners and varying achievement levels found in each classroom, it is crucial for teachers to be able to modify their lessons and differentiate instruction so that all learners can achieve. One specific advancement in technology and education has been the Texas-Instruments product, the TI-Nspire Navigator. The TI-Nspire Navigator is a wireless device that connects to the back of the students’ calculator. Connection occurs through a router and a laptop. Once connected, the teacher can send the students questions, quizzes, or data to the calculator instantly. At that point, students respond to the question by sending their results back to the teacher. The information is displayed on the laptop in an organized form. It is the goal of this study was to determine how the TI-Nspire Navigator affects student achievement in the classroom. Specifically, this study analyzed the use of the TI-Nspire Navigator in two mathematics classrooms – one 9th grade Algebra Regents class and one 10th grade Algebra Extended Class containing special education students. Data was collected over a six week period, through student and teacher surveys, quiz/test results, and teacher observations. The researcher analyzed and observed how student achievement changed when the TI-Nspire Navigator was incorporated into the classroom. Furthermore, data was collected to observe its role in increasing student achievement for not just the general education student, but the special needs student as well. | TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire, New York, Algebra, Common Core Standards, CCSS, Special Education, Case Study |

| | 2010 | It is generally accepted that the introduction of networked technologies to the mathematics classroom can stimulate an irreversible change within the classroom concerning: the role of the teacher; the nature of the classroom tasks; and the way in which students engage in the process of learning mathematics. This article will use the context of a classroom-based study into teachers’ developing practices with the TI-Nspire Navigator-networked system of handhelds to explore the nature of these practices and the implications for the mathematics classroom. The emergence of a range of formative assessment practices is described and the implication of these practices on desirable learning opportunities (as described by the teachers themselves) is discussed. | TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire, formative assessment, assessment for learning |

| | 2010 | Twenty-four seventh-grade teachers participating in a research project focused on formative assessment in a etworked classroom were given pre-and post- assessments of content knowledge for teaching. This paper examines several nteresting differences in content knowledge for teaching etween and among the two groups and suggests possible links between the differences and the content of the two models of professional development in which the participants were engaged. | TI-73, TI-Navigator, Professional Development, Math Content Knowledge, Middle School |

| | 2008 | The secondary school experiment with a network of calculators by the IREM Orléans group in partnership with INRP was intended to design new mathematical situations and instrumental orchestrations involving collective class intelligence. This article describes the stages of this work and shows how the theoretical concepts of collaborative work instrumental genesis and reflective practice led to better understanding of what was involved in the experiment.
| Calculators, network, function, graphical representation, instrumental orchestration, didactic management of artifacts,mutual working, collaborative working, co-operative working, reflectivity, TI-Navigator |

| | 2011 | This ZIP file contains 4 research presentations from Power Session at T^3 International, San Antonio, Feb. 27. 2011. Titles are: Introduction (Burrill) Why Multiple Respresentations - What Research Says (Duncan) What Are the Effects of Adding TI-Navigator to a Graphing Calculator Classroom? (Pape) CAS We Can! - But Should We? The Integration of Symbolic Calculators into Mathematics Lessons (Weigand)
| T-Cubed, T^3, International, CAS, TI-Navigator, TI-Nspire, Multiple Representations |

| | 2008 | Describes instructional applications of two classrom network technologies: "clickers" and TI-Navigator | TI-Navigator, clicker |

| | 2009 | The data represent a reduced achievement gap between Integrated Algebra and College Prep Algebra. In Year 1, the gap declined from a 14.02% difference to a 8.18% difference in average number of proficient students. In Year 2, the gap declined from a 14.91% difference to 7.54% difference in the average number of proficient students. | MathForward, North Brunswick, Algebra, TI-84, TI-Navigator |

| | 2008 | The pattern of results was different for the two grades studied. In seventh grade, the losses made by MathForward students were lower than the losses made by comparison students. However, the differences were no different from chance. In 8th grade, MathForward students significantly outgained comparison students. In neither grade did student gender or ethnicity affect student gains. It is difficult to interpret the differences in the results for the two grade levels in terms of implementation. The four MathForward teachers also provided instruction to comparison students, and they had access to the technology in comparison classrooms. At the same time, one of the seventh grade teachers did not receive training and was gone for most of the year, which could have explained differences in the results for different grade levels. | MathForward, Brentwood, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | The study had adequate power to detect small effects, and comparison groups were similar enough to the program students to infer that the analysis reflects differences in gains attributable to the program as implemented. But Dallas is a case of a district where limited implementation of interactive pedagogies with TI-Navigator may have reduced the effectiveness of the program. In addition, staff turnover at one DISD school may have reduced implementation quality. | MathForward, Dallas ISD, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | Euclid is a case of a district where implementation was strong, but where the sample size of the MathForward group was too small to detect significant effects. MathForward and comparison students were roughly comparable, and implementation was strong in the classroom and well supported by district staff and coaches. But to show significant differences between the MathForward and comparison students, the differences between the two groups would have needed to be between 6 and 9 points. Those differences are large, relative to differences produced by interventions studied in education and that have been judged to be successful. | MathForward, Euclid OH, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | The results were different for the two schools in the study. At Jackson Memorial Middle Schools, students in MathForward outscored comparison students in 2008, but the difference may have been due to chance, because it was not statistically significant. By contrast, at Jackson High School, comparison students outscored participating students, but these results may also have been due to chance and participating students had lower scores than comparison students in 8th grade. In the high school, impacts would have to have been large to achieve statistical significance, due to small sample sizes. There were no significant differences for boys or girls for either school, and there were not enough low-income students or students of color from the district to analyze results for these two groups of students. | MathForward, Jackson OH, TI-Navigator, TI-73,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | Springfield is a case of a district where implementation was strong, and where the sample size of the MathForward™ group was large enough detect statistically significant effects, so the results are not due to chance. At the same time, the differences between gains in 2007 to 2008 may have been caused by factors other than MathForward™. In addition, instability in estimates of gain scores from year to year make it difficult to determine whether measurement error or differences in test difficulty from year to year are the cause of the observed change. | MathForward, Springfield OH, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | West Palm Beach County is a case of a district where implementation was not particularly strong, and where there was no evidence of program effects on achievement. MathForward and comparison students were roughly comparable, and the sample size was adequate to detect effects of the program. One possible explanation for the results was that the district’s schools transformed the intended design of the program in ways that may have limited its effectiveness. | MathForward, West Palm Beach FL, TI-Navigator, TI-73,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | Levittown is the case of a district where implementation was high and in which one of two grade levels’ scores were higher for MathForward students than for comparison students. The differences in outcomes may have been due to several reasons, including the fact that implementation was lower for two 10AXBX teachers. Although the sample sizes were small for both groups, the observed effects were large enough among the 9AX students to be statistically significant. | MathForward, Levittown NY, TI-Navigator, TI-84,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | In year 3, the overall gains made in mathematics by MathForward™ students on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) were significantly greater than for comparison students. These students differed from the program students in that they were higher-achieving and less likely to be minority students. The gains of MathForward™ students were greatest in 7th grade, relative to the 8th grade and Algebra 1 students that participated. African American students in the program made greater gains than African American students not in the program, resulting in decreasing the achievement gaps for that group. Among the MathForward™ students, 55 percent of students scored proficient or higher in mathematics in spring 2008, compared to 48 percent the year before. These findings are consistent with achievement gains in previous years for participating students | MathForward, Richardson, RISD, TI-Navigator, TI-73, TI-84,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | All schools increased time for mathematics instruction for participating students. -Teachers’ professional development experiences were deep, extended, and varied in format. - Most schools did not provide common planning periods for participating teachers. - Teachers and students found the TINavigator™ technology contributed positively to teaching and learning. - When using TI-Navigator™, teachers used its formative assessment functions most often. -Teachers used assessment data to adjust the pace of their instruction | MathForward, TI-Navigator, TI-73, TI-84,graphing Calculators |

| | 2011 | The history of efforts to improve the teaching of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) curricula has included a number of change initiatives over the past 50 years at every level of education from elementary through post-secondary. Recently, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) has published a framework for development of common core standards for science (Standards, 2011). Of particular importance for this discussion are five of the eight practices of science identified in the framework: planning and carrying out investigations (in particular, data collection); analyzing and interpreting data; developing and using models; using mathematics, information and computer technology, and computational thinking; engaging in argument from evidence. These five practices frame this paper. Specifically, this report examines how features of TI’s Nspired Learning system (including TI-Nspire and TI-Navigator, align with the need to build the practice of science into the curriculum, through the combination of hardware, software and research-based practices for learning and instruction.
| Science, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, Physics, Chemistry, Biology |

| | 2009 | The Gear Up III Creating a Vision project is a mathematics education intervention program implemented in 7 small school districts in the rural area surrounding the Laredo, Texas area with primarily Hispanic students. The 2008-2009 academic year was the first year of implementation using the TI-Navigator system with TI-84 graphing calculators. High performing students increased their TAKS scores significantly, while the program had no effect on low performing students. Caution should be used when generalizing these results due to a number of complicating factors including severe student data attrition and a lack of control groups | TI-84, TI-Navigator, GearUp, Texas |

| | 2010 | Classroom Connectivity Technology (CCT) can serve as a tool for creating contexts in which students engage in mathematical thinking leading to understanding. We theorize four principles of effective mathematics instruction incorporating CCT based on examination of teachers‟ use of CCT within their Algebra I classrooms across four years. Effective implementation of CCT is dependent upon (1) the creation and implementation of mathematical tasks that support examination of patterns leading to generalizations and conceptual development; (2) classroom interactions that focus mathematical thinking within students and the collective class; (3) formative assessment leading to teachers‟ and students‟ increased knowledge of students‟ present understandings; and (4) sustained engagement in mathematical thinking. Each of these principles is discussed in term of its implications for teacher knowledge. | TI-Navigator, CCMS, Connect Classroom, Algebra, Teacher knowledge, discourse |

| | 2011 | Classroom Connectivity Technology (CCT) can serve as a tool for creating contexts in which students engage in mathematical thinking leading to understanding. We theorize four principles of effective mathematics instruction incorporating CCT based on examination of teachers‟ use of CCT within their Algebra I classrooms across four years. Effective implementation of CCT is dependent upon (1) the creation and implementation of mathematical tasks that support examination of patterns leading to generalizations and conceptual development; (2) classroom interactions that focus mathematical thinking within students and the collective class; (3) formative assessment leading to teachers‟ and students‟ increased knowledge of students‟ present understandings; and (4) sustained engagement in mathematical thinking. Each of these principles is discussed in term of its implications for teacher knowledge. | TI-Navigator, TI-84, CCMS, Algebra, Physics |

| | 2012 | Prior to the project, 93% of teachers indicated that they never used supplemental materials in algebra or geometry in the classrooms. Since purchasing the TI-Nspire calculators for all students, daily classroom usage of the equipment increased to 77%. Sixty percent of teachers said their students use the calculators for in-class inquiry-based explorations using the calculator’s scientific functions. Additionally, math benchmark test data show that the classes furthest along in implementation (utilizing the technology most consistently) demonstrate the greatest score gains. | MathForward, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, STEM, DoDEA, Clover Park, Case Study, Science |

| | 2008 | Research on teachers’ use of TI-Nspire technology in mathematics and science classrooms shows that the unique capabilities of this new generation of handheld device help teachers engage learners in exploration, focus on conceptual understanding, and deepen learners’ work with mathematical and scientific models. In addition, research suggests that forthcoming integration of the TI-Nspire Navigator System will further enhance classroom collaboration and formative assessment. | Research note, TI-Nspire, TI-Nspire Navigator, TI-Navigator, Interactive Math Classroom, IMC |

| | 2009 | Research shows that students tend to score higher on mathematics achievement tests when the teacher knows, through a network-connected classroom, more about how students are thinking about mathematics. | Research Note, TI-Navigator, Formative Assessment |

| | 2007 | SimCalc is a promising model for teaching mathematics in a technology-facilitated environment. At the heart of the model is the use of technology to integrate graphical, dynamic and linguistic representation to enhance student learning. At Texas Instruments, we see implications that extend far beyond the project and are important to the entire graphing calculator and classroom networking community in math and science education. | Research note, SimCalc, Calculus, Graphing Calculator, TI-84, TI-Navigator, Interactive Math Classroom, IMC |

| | 2003 | An interpretive review of the research basis of TI-Navigator concluded: -TI-Navigator supports multiple question types and provides immediate feedback and assessment, helps direct students toward mastery-oriented goals, engages prior knowledge by collecting everyone's responses to problems and showing variations, facilitates conceptual reasoning and fosters collaboration. -Students are more engaged, able to understand complex subjects, more interested in topics, able to gauge their own level of understanding and more willing to take part in discussions when the TI-Navigator system is incorporated into classroom instruction. -Teachers are able to promote greater discussions and interactivity, to assess and guide student performance, and extend the classroom topics beyond the allotted class time when the TI-Navigator system is incorporated into classroom instruction.
| TI-Navigator |

| | 2009 | At RISD, 7th and 8th grade students who used TI MathForward achieved higher scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Mathematics than similar 7th and 8th grade students who used other mathematics programs during previous years. This study found evidence that the strongest application of MathForward was at grade 7 and a positive, but smaller, result was found for grade 8. The study also found that 9th grade Algebra I students who used MathForward scored lower than a similar group of 9th grade Algebra I students from previous years. While there is no evidence that 9th grade Algebra I students achieve higher after having participated more years in MathForward, students appear to achieve higher if their teachers have more experience using MathForward. | MathForward, RISD, Richardson, TI-73, TI-84, TI-Navigator |

| | 2006 | This report describes an analysis of an intervention with the goal of enhancing mathematical understanding through the use of graphing technology, in-classroom networks and daily problem solving. The intervention has been implemented in several 7th and 8th grade math classes in a Texas school district. This analysis examined changs in the TAKS math scores of students receiving the intervention compared to students not receiving the intervention in the academic school year 2005-6. These results for all four models presented, indicate that students that are in the treatment group, For Analysis One, results indicate that being included in the study group tends to predict an increase in the math TAKS assessment. The first model (Table 3), indicated that the estimatemath TAKS NCE score tends to be about 5 NCE points greater in gains than comparison students. However, in the second model (Table 4), the study group change was not statistisignificant, although the coefficient was positive, indicating that scores for the study students increased slightly compared to other 7th and 8th grade students in the district. In Analysis Two, the third model (Table 5), indicated that the estimated math TAKS NCE score owever, in the fourth model (Table 7), the treatment group change was not statistically significant, although the coefficient was positive, indicating that scores for the treatment stend to increase compared to other 7th and 8th grade students in the district. In this model there was a discontinuity observed at the cutoff, but the treatment group growth was not significantlydifferent from the other 7th and 8th grade students in the district. Although causal conclusions can not be made, the students in the treatment program appear to have benefited the intervention and from the key components which included: extended learningtime, use of technology to motivate and enhance learning opportunities, provision of common, aligned assessments, increased teacher content knowledge, and development of high expectationfor all students. The goal of this systemic intervention was improve mathematics achievement. Results indicate that students who received the intervention had on average, higher math TAKSscores that the students not receiving the intervention The research design that utilizes Regression Discontinuity Design (RDD) was applied to produce a “gold standard” study without major disruption of normal school work. These research results indicate that applying an intervention program to those students most in need (students not passing the math TAKS), can produce both high quality research results and benefit studentneed. Based on these analyses and given the goals of the program, the Richardson Model for improving math TAKS results can be considered a success. In addition, the successful uregression discontinuity design and the consistency in the increases shown under both the regression discontinuity analyses and Ordinary Least Squares analyses speak to the effectivof the statistical approaches advanced in this research project. Further examination of the district administered Benchmark tests will be made. From this researchers hope to better understand the connection of program implementation, student progress toward learning objectives, and test performance. Finally, larger “N” or number ostudents involved in future projects may help some of the positive trends observed in this preach the level of being statistically significant.
| MathForward, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Richardson ISD, RISD,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2007 | In conclusion, under OLS analyses the study intervention is effective in raising both Type 1 (students who failed the previous year TAKS) and Type 2 (students who passed the previous year TAKS) students’ mean NCE scores. This lends significant support for the versatility and inclusiveness of the intervention when it comes to classroom use. Due to this increasing of the Type 2 Study students’ scores and lack of growth in all other Type 2 students, OLS regression analysis always yield significant results, but regression discontinuity often did not. The closer the Type 1 Control students were to the Type 1 Study students, the more likely the regression discontinuity would fail to find significance. Future work, to validate some of the implications of these analyses, should examine what is happening in the Control classes. This is especially true for the Control 2 classes which in this analysis resemble the Study classes the most at the Type 1 level. Regression discontinuity analyses did show significance at the district level comparison. In general across OLS and RDD analyses, when significance was found the effect of the intervention was in the four to six point range for improved NCE score on a 100 point scale. Even when significance was not reached, the results often were trending in this range. This convergence of results across complementary methodologies lends further credibility both these findings and to the methodologies developed for these analyses. To conclude, the overall results indicate that the MathForward intervention resulted in scores of students below passing in one year improve their scores by 4-6.5 points in the subsequent year. In contrast to other forms of intervention that result in some improvement in outcome for underperforming students but at the apparent expense of students scoring above the passing level, the results of this study suggest scores for all students in classes using the MathForward program improved. All students appeared to benefit from participation in the MathForward program.
| MathForward, Richardson ISD, RISD, TAKS, TI-Navigator, TI-73,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2009 | Improving mathematics teaching and learning through and beyond Algebra is one of the most important challenges facing educators worldwide. The powerful capabilities of technology to engage students, support their cognitive effort, represent mathematics insightfully, and better connect teachers and students are important to addressing the Algebra challenge. To leverage technology effectively, teachers need an appropriate pedagogical model. We propose a pedagogical model based on the concept of interactivity. By interactivity, we mean increasing the quality and frequency of back-and-forth interplay among the teacher, her students, and the mathematical content at hand. Technology can enhance many forms of interactivity, especially when: • students and teachers use technology to explore mathematical models, not just as a calculation tool, and when: • teachers use a shared display and instant feedback to increase students’ cognitive engagement, not only to demonstrate or assess. Across these forms of interactivity, the most important goal is to increase student engagement centered on the doing and making sense of mathematics. Application of this principle leads to highly interactive mathematics classrooms, in which teachers: 1. engage their students in mathematically meaningful activities; 2. focus on mathematics with connections; 3. track what mathematics their students know and adapt accordingly; 4. make mathematics learning a shared responsibility of teachers and students. Implementing a highly interactive mathematics classroom takes more than technology, it requires support for professional development and time for teachers to learn and adapt. For example, the new capability to instantly capture and display students’ screens can provide cognitive contrasts that drive learning, but only when the teacher uses classroom discussions to probe the meaning of contrasting screens. We propose an implementation model that proceeds in stages, based on research data that shows what teachers typically accomplish immediately, with experience and, eventually, as masters of the technology-rich classroom. By thinking in terms of not just technology but also a pedagogical model and implementation in stages, schools can realize deepening benefits over time. Within the first year, schools can experience increased student achievement and more positive student attitudes. Teachers see immediate benefits from knowing more about their students. Over time, with continued technological support and sustained professional development, schools can make progress in closing achievement gaps and introducing higher-order skills, such as mathematical problem solving, collaboration, and argumentation. Over many years, schools will develop master teachers who can lead further improvement in their regions, aimed at developing students’ passion to pursue and succeed in university level mathematics and on toward challenging STEM careers.
| TI-Nspire Navigator, TI-Navigator, Nspired Learning |

| | 2009 | This quasi-experimental study provides moderately strong evidence that: –In the main implementation year of the study, academic math classes using TI-Navigator with PD learned significantly more than similar classes without TI-Navigator. A non-significant but positive trend also was found in the applied classes, which also showed other positive effects. –A follow-up longitudinal analysis of a subset of participants the following year showed continued positive effects in qualitative data. The subset was too small for adequately sensitive quantitative analysis. –Teachers were very positive about the effects of TI-Navigator use on students, noting that students enjoyed the activities and were motivated to participate. –The researchers concluded that use of TI-Navigator can encourage a more open pedagogy (i.e., one that is in line with NCTM precepts) when teachers believe that mathematics is socially constructed and that mathematics teaching must involve students in investigating and discussing mathematics.
| TI-Navigator; TI-84; Grade 9, Grade 10, Canada |

| | 2007 | This chapter focuses on the interaction and development of two strands of 21st century learning and teaching: group-situated design and the use of highly interactive classroom networks. Relative to design, perhaps the most overt and yet often underutilized feature of any classroom is that it is a group of people. Participants come together, typically in a physically contiguous space, where the potential exists for the teaching that takes place to be much more than a parallel delivery system–that is, much more than the simple sum of its parts. Moving beyond treating the group just as a physically proximate collection of individuals or as an undifferentiated monolith, we ask how do we better design for group-situated learning and teaching interactions? We also ask how can a new generation of much more highly interactive classroom networks explicitly enable and extend aspects of group-situated design? These new network systems are capable of supporting the exchange of complex artifacts as well as new forms of highly participatory inter-activity. It is our belief that these systems stand ready to play a significant mediating role in advancing a more fully socially-situated approach to learning and teaching. The goal of this chapter is to articulate, and begin to make practical, a more fully participatory approach to learning and teaching using the capabilities of these next-generation classroom networks and what we call generative design. In addressing this goal, we introduce and outline the what, why, and how of a diversity by design approach to formal education where diversity is addressed in terms of ideas and ways of participating, including variety in native languages, in communication practices, and in interaction patterns. | Diversity, Generative Questioning, TI-Navigator, Classroom Networks |

| | 2005 | This paper reports preliminary analyses comparing results on the state-administered 8th Grade and 9th Grade algebra Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for a treatment and a control group. The treatment group consisted of 127 students from algebra classes at a highly diverse school in central Texas taught by two relatively new teachers using a network-supported function-based algebra (NFBA) approach as integrated with the ongoing use of an existing school-wide algebra curriculum. The control group was comprised of 99 students taught by two more-senior teachers in the same school using only the school-wide algebra curriculum. The intervention consisted of implementing 20-25 class days worth of NFBA materials over an eleven-week period in the spring of 2005. Because the students were not randomly assigned to the classes, the study is a quasi-experimental design. Using a two sample paired t-Test for means, statistically significant results for the treatment group (p-value one tail = 0.000335 > alpha = 0.05) were obtained. We can conclude the NFBA intervention was effective in improving outcomes related to learning the algebra objectives assessed on the 9th Grade TAKS. | TI-Navigator, Algebra, Generative Questioning |

| | 2013 | This case study documents the struggles and successes encountered by a pre-calculus teacher while using classroom connectivity technology (CCT) daily in her community college mathematics course. CCT refers to a wireless communication system that connects a teacher’s computer with an individual student’s handheld calculator and has been associated with positive academic outcomes (Pape et al., 2011). CCT allows the instructor to send documents, collect student responses, and project student work for classroom discussion. Due to the increased complexity of teaching using CCT, however, teachers often struggle with initial implementation. For example, the instructor struggled with a lack of time to plan and execute activities using CCT. She also had to develop an understanding of how to use CCT effectively and how to resolve technical issues that arose during the lesson. The instructor also experienced numerous successes. CCT was used for formative assessment, to promote involvement among students, and to exhibit and connect multiple representations of a mathematical concept. This case study provides mathematics educators seeking to understand the costs and benefits of implementing CCT with valuable insight into issues of early implementation. | TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, Community College, Pre-Calculus, Florida |

| | 2008 | This paper introduces a software usage tracing mechanism and analysis of user log files for a large scale educational research project. The research data is collected online from 50 teachers. The data is parsed and stored in a MySQL database using scripting technologies. In this presentation, a logging process appropriate for educational software usage and the analysis of user traces in educational settings are described by frequency analysis techniques. This novel format of obtaining electronic user traces provides more valuable information about teachers' educational technology use compared to standard logging structures. Data analysis shows that teachers' implementation level and student participation in classroom activities differ with the time of the year, course content, choice and amount of different components and arrangement of instructional strategies in the classroom. Overall student participation in classroom activities is high. It is concluded that the technology use enables teachers to improve their understanding of student learning.
| TI-Navigator, log file, utilization |

| | 2009 | A design experiment was conducted to examine the role of the TI-Nspire, the latest graphing calculator from Texas Instruments, in teaching and learning calculus. This paper reports details on, and preliminary results of, the design experiment involving the design and conduct of a TI-Nspire Intervention Programme for an intact class of thirty-six secondary four students (15-16 years) from a secondary school in Singapore. Use of the TI-Nspire was integrated into teaching and learning Calculus concepts with the aid of the TI Navigator, a wireless classroom network system that enables instant and active interaction between students and teachers. Mathematics attitudes surveys and structured interviews were administered to assess the effects of the use of the TI-Nspire on students’ attitudes towards mathematics. It was found that appropriate use of graphical, numerical and algebraic representations of Calculus concepts using the TI-Nspire could enable the subjects to better visualize the concepts and make generalizations of relevant mathematical properties. Results of paired samples t-tests and interviews with students suggest that there the use of the TI-Nspire has a positive effect on students’ confidence in and perceived usefulness of mathematics. | Calculus, TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, Singapore, |

| | 2008 | TI-Navigator played a complementary, if not prominent, role in students' experience of feedback in college algebra. The results of this study indicate the TI-Navigator provides opportunities for interaction among students through interactive activities, which can lead to positive students' perceptions and more informed feedback to instructors about students' understanding.
| TI-Navigator, College Algebra |

| | 2008 | The overall model results indicated that MathForward participation was associated with significantly higher gains in mathematics achievement, when compared to students in the district not in the program. Grade-by-grade analyses suggest that gains associated with being assigned to the program were primarily in Grades 7 and Grade 8. Furthermore, except for Hispanics in 9th grade, there was no evidence from this study that achievement gaps were closing for students in the program, relative to students not in the program. In grade 7, implementation rates were higher than in the other grades, suggesting one possible explanation for this pattern of results. Teachers made more frequent use of the most powerful TI-Navigator tools in this grade level, and 7th grade teachers also were =more likely to adjust their instruction on the basis of formative assessment data collected using TI-Navigator than were teachers in other grades. The fact that the treatment effect was strongest in this grade suggests that the achievement gains are at least partly attributable to the program. These results are suggestive of the promise of the intervention, but the models tested here do not permit us to conclude that we have unbiased estimates of program impact. There were significant differences between the two groups with respect to both student background and prior achievement, and propensity score matching did not yield groups with enough overlap to create a matched comparison group. The use of gain scores can mitigate potential effects of differences, but the fact that program students had more room to grow may have affected the results. Thus, we cannot conclude that the significant gains observed in this study were caused by the program. Because of the threats to internal validity, there are limits to both generalizability and potential significance for policymakers beyond RISD. We know little about how the achievement gains of low-performing students compared to those of students with similar profiles as program students, since so many students in the district participated that a matched comparison group was impossible to construct. Comparison groups from outside the district may yield better estimates of impact in future years, but these students may not share enough of the same policy and district context to yield valid results. The limitations of the study do not prohibit either TI or RISD from drawing lessons from the study. The relationship between implementation and gains suggests the promise of the program for high-implementing classrooms; it also suggests the need to understand how to support such implementation in the future. For RISD, the gains made by students are confirmation of its policy and approach: MathForward students are making significant gains, at least in 7th and 8th grade. The poor results in 9th grade suggest, furthermore, that the district take a closer look to uncover why these results were not as strong as for the other two grades. | MathForward, Richardson ISD, RISD, TI-Navigator, TI-73, TI-84,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2007 | Summarizes results from: Richardson ISD (RISD) Dallas ISD (DISD) Euclid, OH Palm Springs, FL | MathForward, TI-Navigator, TI-73,Graphing Calcultors |

| | 2008 | Based on teacher surveys and measures of teacher math knowledge, cumulated across all districts: -There was evidence of a positive association between teacher math content knowledge and student performance on statewide tests -The top benefits of TI-Navigator™ technology, from most teachers’ point of view, were more immediate feedback about what students know and can do and enhanced student conceptual understanding of mathematics. -Teachers varied in the extent that they engaged students in extended discussion of their ideas. When they did engage students, most often discussion was part of whole-class instruction or review. -Most teachers did use the TI-Navigator displays in their class so that students can see the distribution of responses to problems in class. Some used the data to speed up or slow down the pace of instruction.
| Teacher Pedagogical Content Knowledge, TPCK, CKT-M, MathForward, TI-Navigator, TI-73, TI-84,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | In the first year of a large-scale, multi-state experimental study of the effects of TI-Navigator use in Algebra 1, the treatment group outperformed the control group in algebra performance. The size of the effect was moderate (e.s.=.30, or about 14% difference in treatment-control group achievement), and occurred among items involving the coordinate plane, the most visual content. See also: Pape, S. J., K. E. Irving, et al. (2008). The impact of classroom connectivity in promoting Algebra I achievement: Results of a randomized control trial. American Educational Research Association (AERA). New York, NY, Ohio State University: 50. Download from www.ccms.osu.edu. | TI-Navigator, Interactive Classroom, Algebra 1, experiment |

| | 2010 | As seen in the descriptions of the two PD models, one of the primary differences between the models is the order and emphasis on formative assessment and on the use of TI-Navigator for formative assessment in the delivery. This design was generated due to the difficulties identified with implementing formative assessment in classroom. To use technology to implement formative assessment adds another level of complexity. Project FANC is trying to determine if there is a difference, based on student outcomes, between these two designs. After two years of PD, to check if there is a difference in student outcomes, pre and post student data is being collected. In addition, data is continually being collected on how teachers are implementing each of the PD models and the effects of these models on student learning. For a more in-depth analysis of teacher implementation, case studies of ten teachers are being conducted to give a picture of various degrees of implementation of formative assessment strategies using the TINavigator. Full results on the project will become available starting in December 2010. | TI-Navigator, TI-73, Middle School, Formative Assessment, Professional Development, PD |

| | 2007 | The University of Mississippi, with funding provided by Texas Instruments, completed a study on the effects of the TI-Navigator System on student achievement and attitude, in algebra II. Students (n = 386) were divided into control and experimental groups in two sites. In a quasi-experimental design, the control group used TI calculators as appropriate for lessons while the experimental group used TI calculators and the Navigator System in the same lessons. Using a pre-posttest design, students in both groups completed an attitudinal survey and a content test designed to focus on algebraic concepts and skills with specific attention to functions, graphing, systems of equations, and concept of variable. Findings from the study indicated that both groups showed improvement in their content but the experimental group gains were statistically significant at the p < .007 level. Attitudes were not significantly affected between the two groups.
| TI-Navigator, Algebra, Mississippi, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2010 | This paper reports on two different models of professional development that were created to investigate the use of formative assessment in a networked classroom. Participants were divided into two groups with one group receiving formative assessment without networked technology in the first year while the second group received formative assessment along with technology. Data was gathered on participants’ knowledge of formative assessment and their attitudes toward the use of technology. | TI-73, TI-Navigator, Middle School, Formative Assessment, Professional Development, Attitude toward technology |

| | 2012 | In mathematics education teachers experience a constant lack of time to properly instruct their students. In the Netherlands the contact time for mathematics in secondary education during the last fifteen years again declined. Mathematics is also perceived as difficult by students. This research focuses on the question: how can we better utilize contact time in mathematics education? Meta-analyses of learning outcomes, such as those described by Hattie (2009), show that feedback is one of the most powerful single tools for improving learning achievements. In this study we explore the possibility of graphing calculators (GR), connected to the teacher computer through the use of a wireless network, to improve the feedback in mathematics education. First, students received immediate feedback on their worked out mathematics assignments GR and second, the teacher, usually in the next lesson, gave feedback on the work of the students, supported by an analysis of that work through the system. This study focused primarily on the development of 'data literacy' among students, while the 'algorithmic skills' were not forgotten. In four stages, a prototype of the intervention designed, tested, evaluated and adjusted in nine groups of students. The mathematics teachers and their students are generally enthusiastic about the results. They for instance recommend to spend half of each lesson working this way. Though, the teachers explicitly state that they have experienced a tough workload while mastering this way of teaching. The study makes the conditions to be met before the method can be successful explicit.
| TI-Nspire CAS, Statistics education, Secondary School, Feedback, Professional Development, Classroom Networking, TI-Navigator, TI-89, The Netherlands, Graphing Calculator, Design research, case study |

| | 2009 | The TI-Navigator project was a mixed methods study to investigate use of the TI-Navigator in grade 9, 10 and 11 mathematics. The study began in 2006 and continued into 2009. The key questions for the research were: What are the effects of TI-Navigator use on student achievement in Grade 9/10 applied/academic mathematics? What are the effects of its use on the attitudes of Grade 9/10 applied/academic math students towards mathematics? What are the effects of its use on teaching practice? What support do teachers need to use such technology effectively? The study involved 15 teachers and 546 students in year one. In year two, the study involved 611 students (454 students from the implementation year (2006-2007), and 158 new students) and 16 teachers. In the third year of the study, 219 students were followed into grade 11. These students were selected because they enrolled in either a university prep mathematics course (U) or a university/college-prep mathematics course (U/C) in the first semester.
| TI-Navigator, TI-84, Canada, Grades 9, Grade 10, Grade 11 |

| | 2008 | This is the interim report of a two-year study of TI-84 + TI-Navigator in two schools of the Toronto Catholic Board system, grade 10, academic and applied tracks. A quasi-experiment showed greater achievement for the academic classes than similar non-TI-Navigator classes. However, there was no difference for applied math classes. Final report will be published in 2009. | TI-Navigator, TI-84, Grade 10, Quasi-Experiment, Canada,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2005 | Students showed improvement in the areas of: conceptual understanding, classroom interactions, quantity and quality of responses, time on task and time to start tasks | TI-Navigator, Algebra 1, Hawaii, TI-84,graphing Calculators |

| | 2005 | The study focused on three research questions: - What is the effect of the use of the TI-Navigator technology on eighth-grade Algebra I students’ achievement in the areas of graphing, solving systems of equations, and solving linear equations? - What is the effect of the use of the TI-Navigator technology on eighth-grade Algebra I students’ attitudes and beliefs about the use of calculators and other technology in mathematics, specifically algebra? - What is the effect of the use of the TI-Navigator technology on eighth-grade Algebra I students’ interactions during mathematics class? Two eighth-grade algebra classes were matched in terms of gender and achievement levels by a random process used at the project site. One class was randomly selected to be the control group and the other designated as the experimental group. The control group class used calculators as appropriate to their regular curricular program but were not given access to the TI-Navigator technology. The experimental class used the TINavigator technology daily for two months during the two chapters designated in this study. The calculator used in both classes with the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition. Each student was assigned a calculator for use at school but may not have had access at home. Pre-and post-tests on content knowledge were administered at the appropriate times concurrently with an attitudinal survey. Daily classroom observations were also conducted and recorded using an observation protocol. This summary reports the statistical data taken from the two administrations of the content knowledge tests. The description of how the appropriate statistical procedure was selected is included.
| TI-Navigator, Algebra, TI-84, Hawaii,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2012 | Neste artigo pretendemos apresentar alguns resultados de um estudo parcelar, com recurso a tecnologia de comunicação sem fios em sala de aula, no âmbito de um projeto piloto de investigação em Educação, intitulado "Cenários de aprendizagem com tecnologia de comunicação sem fios: estudo longitudinal no Ensino Secundário", a realizar-se na Universidade do Minho. A utilização da tecnologia TI-Nspire Navigator, que permite a comunicação sem fios entre o professor e os seus alunos, teve lugar em duas aulas de Matemática na introdução do tema, de 11°ano de Matemática, Programação Linear de 7 turmas de 2 escolas do norte de Portugal. A análise aqui apresentada baseia nos dados recolhidos pela ferramenta portefólio do software TINavigator, nomeadamente as respostas dos alunos a questÕes submetidas pelo professor e o tempo de envio e correção das respostas. | TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, High School, Portugal |

| | 2006 | Teachers can draw upon three levels of research alignment as they plan classroom use of TI-Nspire™ math and science learning handhelds to enhance student achievement.
| TI-Nspire, multiple representations, TI-Navigator, research basis |

| | 2009 | 1. Early adoption of technical innovations by „mainstream‟ eachers depends on: a. A relatively undemanding commitment initially in learning about its functionality, b. where the application fits in well to teachers‟ existing practice c. where there is an immediate gain in „value added‟ to the learning of the students. d. Technical support is readily available to sort out any „hitches‟ e. BUT note the importance of an „outside‟ influence in order for the ZPA to remain active. 2. Planning, both „large scale‟ in schemes of work and „small scale‟ lesson planning is crucial for the sustained use of the technology. This has implications for the allocation of time for professional development. 3. A sense of ownership by the teachers of the innovation and personal ownership by students of the technology is important in order to sustain the innovation. 4. This use of the GC, as a mature technology which is relatively robust, portable and focused in its use in STEM subjects, demonstrates how technology can be effectively integrated into the „normal‟ classroom. 5. The emerging understanding that the affordance of the extra dimension of a connected classroom through wireless networking of handheld technology has the potential to transform the way mathematics is taught and learnt. | TI-84, TI-Navigator, UK |

| | 2006 | Year 1: Pilot results in the middle school where MathForward was implemented showed increased teacher content knowledge, including knowledge of patterns, functions and algebra. Teachers’ self-reports included: -their teaching effectiveness and techniques improved from mid year to year end -use of TI-Navigator system increased student participation and reduced behavioral problems -students’ algebra readiness increased
| MathForward, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Richardson ISD, RISD, TAKS, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2007 | Year 2: Jr. High program expansion showed: -Growth in teacher knowledge of number & operations was positively associated with the TAKS performance of their students. -Teacher self-reports of confidence improved. -Teacher self-reports of collegial support remained high across the year.
| MathForward, TI-Navigator, TI-73, RISD, Richardson ISD,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2012 | This is a PowerPoint presentation summarizing the most important current research on TI-Nspire and TI-Navigator (collectively referred to as the interactive math/science classroom), of interest internationally.
| TI-Nspire, TI-Navigator, Math, Science |