| | 2011 | This article reports on a qualitative study of six high school calculus students designed to build an understanding about the affect associated with graphing calculator use in independent situations. framework for affect as a representational system was used as a lens through which to understand the ways in which graphing calculator use impacted students’ affective pathways. It was found that using the graphing calculator helped students maintain productive affective pathways for problem solving as long as they were using graphing calculator capabilities for which they had gone through a process of instrumental genesis with respect to the mathematical task they were working on. Furthermore, graphing calculator use and the affect that is associated with its use may be influenced by the perceived values of others, including parents and teachers (past, present and future) | Affect, Graphing Calculators, High School, Calculus, Instrumentalization, TI-89, CAS |

| | 2009 | The original Richardson MathForward Program analysis for 2005 – 2007 is reviewed here and supplemented with a revised analysis to account for certain assumptions not addressed previously. While the general conclusions have not changed from the original report, they are expanded upon here with revised values that are believed to be a more accurate representation of what was happening to students in the study between 2005 and 2007. | MathForward, Richardson ISD, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2009 | Bavarian grade 11 students studying calculus with symbolic calculators with CAS - the students in the project classes have learned in a more individualized way, they changed their working style, e. g. working with functions and equations, and they became acquainted with some new examples. - No difference between symbolic classrrom and comparison classes was measured. This calls into question the sensitivity of the tests used.
| Graphing Calculators, TI-Nspire, Voyage 200, CAS, 11th grade, tests |

| | 2007 | With the TI-Navigator system, 27% percent more students scored in the 90% range on the New York State Regents Math A for 2007, when compared to the same teacher’s non-TI-Navigator system class in 2005 | Case study, TI-84, TI-Navigator, Math AB, New York, Graphing Calculators, white |

| | 2006 | Title I schools in two small rural Texas districts with about 80% economically disadvantaged students were given unlimited access to a TI-83 Plus graphing calculator was substantially beneficial to students’ conceptual attainment. This was true for both rural high schools, regardless of student SES. | Case study, TI-83, Graphing Calculators, Ownership, Texas, Title I, Rural, HS, Precalculus, FRPL |

| | 2007 | Pre-/post-comparisons showed gains in perceived experience from the beginning to the end of the course. However, the number of students who felt nervous about the prospect of using graphing calculators increased. | Case Study, TI-Nspire, Graphing Calculators, Pre-Service Teachers, Attitudes, Beliefs, TPACK, TPCK |

| | 2007 | Introducing TI-Navigator led to more questions being asked which often led to discussions. Also, students often interpreted questions differently. This allowed for even more discussion. | Case Study, TI-Navigator, TI-84, Grade 7-8, Middle School, Graphing Calculators, Canada, French |

| | 2009 | I can look at the Navigator screen and I am able to diagnose the problem areas and fix them for the individual(s) before moving on in my content. And, … a 100% made gains on the FCAT
| Case Study, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Grade 5, Elementary, Florida, Graphing Calculators, white |

| | 2006 | a 5% increase in learning occurred directly due to the addition of technology in the classroom….The class that used technology was able to have a maximum score of 100% on the assessment, whereas the non-technology group only scored a maximum of 95% | Case study, Algebra, Grade 10, Grade 11, Grade 12, TI-83, Graphing Calculators, white |

| | 2009 | Formative assessment with TI-Navigator has helped this teacher to deal efficiently with misconceptions, and to use class time more efficiently. In the process, his thinking about teaching and learning has evolved | Case study, TI-Navigator, Graphing Calculators, Formative Assessment, underachievers, misconceptions |

| | 2006 | “Calculators belong in the math classroom…The students are excited about them and enjoy any activities presented that allow them not only to use the calculators but to learn more about the possibilities surrounding them | Case study, TI-84, Pre-Algebra, Algebra, Secondary, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2007 | What follows is a careful, detailed attempt on our part to provide the NMP our views pertaining to the issues we believe you should consider. These views are based on our experiences, review of available research, and lessons learned. We understand that they are not grounded in scientific research, though, in certain circumstances, significant research, some of which we are sponsoring, is uunderway. We would be pleased to report results of further research as it is completed. The key point we want to make, however, is that to achieve and sustain student performance improvement, we have learned that key elements of the mathematics education system must be addressed in a coherent, integrated way, and there is no “silver bullet” focused on a single system element. We understand there is not fully developed scientific research to prove this hypothesis; rather, it is an observation from decades of experience and involvement in the field. Our hope is that you will uncover and publish, if it exists, scientific evidence on the proposition that systemic reform is necessary as well as the proven components of a comprehensive system that will effectively deliver mathematics education and improve student mathematics performance. If such scientific research does not currently exist, we strongly recommend that the NMP make such research a matter of the highest priority in its conclusions and report.
| Mathematics education, technology, graphing calculators, mathforward, national math panel, research |

| | 2007 | For the most part, the experiment could not discern an impact as a result of providing the equipment and training for TI-Navigator. As shown in the figure below, we found a modest effect for Geometry achievement using the NWEA End of Course Geometry test. This figure shows the outcome measure in standardized units. However, this impact was not reflected in CST Geometry scores. In Algebra, while we found no overall difference, there was some evidence of a small negative impact for students scoring “below basic” on the CST and, holding pretest score constant, for English proficient students. The results of the NWEA End of Course Algebra I test did not reflect those same results. Implementation must be considered in interpreting these findings. Our surveys and observations make clear that this implementation was not a fair test of the difference TI-Navigator might make if used more extensively. Of the 19 teachers originally assigned to the treatment group, about half did not use the system at all for instruction. Of the remaining nine teachers, only three could be considered “Comprehensive-Implementers.” Of those three, only one used TI-Navigator daily. Technical glitches deterred many from using the system after previous failed attempts. Overall use may have been constrained by the fact that California prohibits calculator use on state tests. Impact on NWEA Geometry Achievement Our results also must be qualified by the fact that, while finding differences on one test, we did not find differences on the other test. The significant amount of attrition, both at the teacher and student levels, although not believed to be associated with the program being tested, raises issues about generalizability. For example, it is clear that in both experimental conditions, lower scoring students were significantly more likely to not have posttests, indicating that our findings are not applicable to the lowest scoring students in these districts. Overall, we found that the TI-Navigator affected the average number of minutes the technology was used. The teachers with TI-Navigator reported using the technology about 15 minutes more per week per class period than teachers without. Future exploratory analyses may prove useful in suggesting whether extent of usage can account for student outcomes. In particular, since TINavigator resulted in greater technology use, examining the correlation between technology use and achievement may suggest a mechanism by which TI- Navigator could be effective. Future studies of TI-Navigator will benefit from greater support for implementation. We also recommend continuing to include Geometry in the topics to which TI-Navigator is applied, since the positive result found in this experiment should be replicated. | TI-Navigator, Graphing Calculators, Geometrey, Algebra, California |

| | 2008 | Canton is a case of a district where differences in outcomes by grade level appeared to be correlated with levels of implementation. Higher levels of implementation were linked to better outcomes, providing some support for evidence that interactive teaching methods are an important ingredient in the program’s success. In addition, Canton was an example of a district where, despite small numbers of students, MathForward had a positive, gap-closing effect for African American students. At the same time, the differences between gains in 2007 to 2008 may have been caused by factors other than MathForward, such as events that took place during the 2007-08 school year. | MathForward, Canton Local, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2010 | In this article, the author explores five African American students’ racial, mathematical, and technological identity construction and how these identities shape each other and the sense of agency exhibited in the process. Data collection for the study included classroom observations and interviews, including a task-based interview. The stories told by the participants, their solutions for the mathematical tasks, and their participation in the figured world of mathematical learning illuminated their sense of identity and agency. An analysis of the data revealed that the participants’ positioning and authoring of their identities were influenced by how they negotiated and interpreted the constraints and affordances in the figured worlds in which they participated. It is through this process of negotiation and interpretation that the participants exhibited a sense of agency, or lack thereof, which, in turn, shaped their opportunities to participate in mathematics and hence the authoring of their mathematical identities. | African American education, agency, equity, Graphing Calculators, identity, mathematics achievement |

| | 2006 | In a statewide study relating graphing calculator use patterns to achievement, researchers found that: Students demonstrated higher levels of math performance when a graphing calculator was used. There was a positive correlation between the residual gain scores and students using a classroom set of graphing calculators.
| TI-83, TI-84, TI-73, Ownership, 1:1, Texas, TAKS, Algebra, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2004 | Previous work has identified Ten Components of Effective Schools which were often associated with schools and school districts whose students were achieving above average academically. The main purpose of this study was to determine if a questionnaire-based data gathering process could capture information sufficient to test the efficacy of these Ten Components upon mathematics performance in elementary and middle schools. That is, can a short questionnaire filled out by teachers and administrators adequately capture sufficient information about such characteristics as administrative practices, curriculum alignment and professional development to test whether different degrees or quality of implementation of these practices actually makes any difference in educational outcomes at the school or school district level? Information was obtained from 828 teachers in 104 schools located in 18 school districts across three states—California, North Carolina, and Texas. Several districts in each state and several schools within each district were selected which had large proportions of economically disadvantaged students. In addition, it was attempted to get a mix of districts which exhibited either higher than average or lower than average performance among the majority of their campuses, using a criterion described in the paper. Correlation and linear regression analyses were used to see which of the Ten Components were associated with the more successful schools, leaving aside district influence. Using Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM) analysis, the district-level aggregates derived from the survey data were used to determine which of the components were most strongly associated with higher than predicted performance among the school districts in the sample. Strong and consistent correlations were found between school-wide average student math performance and the degree of implementation of several of the Ten Components. The survey results were even more effective in explaining variations in the average math performance of entire school districts, even when correcting for differences in the proportion of economically disadvantaged students. The results were weakest based upon data for North Carolina. Reasons for this are discussed.
| Mathematics Education, Components, MathForward, graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | The pattern of results was different for the two grades studied. In seventh grade, the losses made by MathForward students were lower than the losses made by comparison students. However, the differences were no different from chance. In 8th grade, MathForward students significantly outgained comparison students. In neither grade did student gender or ethnicity affect student gains. It is difficult to interpret the differences in the results for the two grade levels in terms of implementation. The four MathForward teachers also provided instruction to comparison students, and they had access to the technology in comparison classrooms. At the same time, one of the seventh grade teachers did not receive training and was gone for most of the year, which could have explained differences in the results for different grade levels. | MathForward, Brentwood, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | The study had adequate power to detect small effects, and comparison groups were similar enough to the program students to infer that the analysis reflects differences in gains attributable to the program as implemented. But Dallas is a case of a district where limited implementation of interactive pedagogies with TI-Navigator may have reduced the effectiveness of the program. In addition, staff turnover at one DISD school may have reduced implementation quality. | MathForward, Dallas ISD, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | Euclid is a case of a district where implementation was strong, but where the sample size of the MathForward group was too small to detect significant effects. MathForward and comparison students were roughly comparable, and implementation was strong in the classroom and well supported by district staff and coaches. But to show significant differences between the MathForward and comparison students, the differences between the two groups would have needed to be between 6 and 9 points. Those differences are large, relative to differences produced by interventions studied in education and that have been judged to be successful. | MathForward, Euclid OH, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | The results were different for the two schools in the study. At Jackson Memorial Middle Schools, students in MathForward outscored comparison students in 2008, but the difference may have been due to chance, because it was not statistically significant. By contrast, at Jackson High School, comparison students outscored participating students, but these results may also have been due to chance and participating students had lower scores than comparison students in 8th grade. In the high school, impacts would have to have been large to achieve statistical significance, due to small sample sizes. There were no significant differences for boys or girls for either school, and there were not enough low-income students or students of color from the district to analyze results for these two groups of students. | MathForward, Jackson OH, TI-Navigator, TI-73,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | Springfield is a case of a district where implementation was strong, and where the sample size of the MathForward™ group was large enough detect statistically significant effects, so the results are not due to chance. At the same time, the differences between gains in 2007 to 2008 may have been caused by factors other than MathForward™. In addition, instability in estimates of gain scores from year to year make it difficult to determine whether measurement error or differences in test difficulty from year to year are the cause of the observed change. | MathForward, Springfield OH, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | West Palm Beach County is a case of a district where implementation was not particularly strong, and where there was no evidence of program effects on achievement. MathForward and comparison students were roughly comparable, and the sample size was adequate to detect effects of the program. One possible explanation for the results was that the district’s schools transformed the intended design of the program in ways that may have limited its effectiveness. | MathForward, West Palm Beach FL, TI-Navigator, TI-73,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | Levittown is the case of a district where implementation was high and in which one of two grade levels’ scores were higher for MathForward students than for comparison students. The differences in outcomes may have been due to several reasons, including the fact that implementation was lower for two 10AXBX teachers. Although the sample sizes were small for both groups, the observed effects were large enough among the 9AX students to be statistically significant. | MathForward, Levittown NY, TI-Navigator, TI-84,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | In year 3, the overall gains made in mathematics by MathForward™ students on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) were significantly greater than for comparison students. These students differed from the program students in that they were higher-achieving and less likely to be minority students. The gains of MathForward™ students were greatest in 7th grade, relative to the 8th grade and Algebra 1 students that participated. African American students in the program made greater gains than African American students not in the program, resulting in decreasing the achievement gaps for that group. Among the MathForward™ students, 55 percent of students scored proficient or higher in mathematics in spring 2008, compared to 48 percent the year before. These findings are consistent with achievement gains in previous years for participating students | MathForward, Richardson, RISD, TI-Navigator, TI-73, TI-84,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | All schools increased time for mathematics instruction for participating students. -Teachers’ professional development experiences were deep, extended, and varied in format. - Most schools did not provide common planning periods for participating teachers. - Teachers and students found the TINavigator™ technology contributed positively to teaching and learning. - When using TI-Navigator™, teachers used its formative assessment functions most often. -Teachers used assessment data to adjust the pace of their instruction | MathForward, TI-Navigator, TI-73, TI-84,graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | Existing research suggests that integration of graphing calculators can improve student conceptual understanding, attitudes toward math, and retention in college level studies in math and related fields. | Research note, Graphing Calculators, Developmental Math, Post-Secondary |

| | 2008 | Existing research suggests that integration of graphing calculators can improve student conceptual understanding, attitudes toward math, and retention in college level studies in math and related fields. | Research note, Graphing Calculators, Developmental Math, Post-Secondary |

| | 2007 | Portable handheld devices in the teachers’ own classroom enable frequent, integral use of technology in teaching, whereas when a teacher and students must go to a different room, ICTs are likely to be occasional and peripheral to the learning process. Frequent, integrated use in teaching provides greater benefits from an investment in technology. | Research note, Graphing Calculators, Handhelds, 1:1 computing, ICT |

| | 2007 | In an qualitative study of TI-89 use in a Precalculus class, the device played an important, mediating role in the progressive evolution of mathematical thought, from the concrete to the abstract, or from material to theoretical knowledge. This study provides a detailed account of how deep conceptual understanding can build through use of a graphing calculator. | Research note, TI-89, Pre-Calculus,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | Summarizes French-language articles on graphing calculator research, 2002-2008. English-language summary also attached. | Graphing Calculators, France |

| | 2006 | This report describes an analysis of an intervention with the goal of enhancing mathematical understanding through the use of graphing technology, in-classroom networks and daily problem solving. The intervention has been implemented in several 7th and 8th grade math classes in a Texas school district. This analysis examined changs in the TAKS math scores of students receiving the intervention compared to students not receiving the intervention in the academic school year 2005-6. These results for all four models presented, indicate that students that are in the treatment group, For Analysis One, results indicate that being included in the study group tends to predict an increase in the math TAKS assessment. The first model (Table 3), indicated that the estimatemath TAKS NCE score tends to be about 5 NCE points greater in gains than comparison students. However, in the second model (Table 4), the study group change was not statistisignificant, although the coefficient was positive, indicating that scores for the study students increased slightly compared to other 7th and 8th grade students in the district. In Analysis Two, the third model (Table 5), indicated that the estimated math TAKS NCE score owever, in the fourth model (Table 7), the treatment group change was not statistically significant, although the coefficient was positive, indicating that scores for the treatment stend to increase compared to other 7th and 8th grade students in the district. In this model there was a discontinuity observed at the cutoff, but the treatment group growth was not significantlydifferent from the other 7th and 8th grade students in the district. Although causal conclusions can not be made, the students in the treatment program appear to have benefited the intervention and from the key components which included: extended learningtime, use of technology to motivate and enhance learning opportunities, provision of common, aligned assessments, increased teacher content knowledge, and development of high expectationfor all students. The goal of this systemic intervention was improve mathematics achievement. Results indicate that students who received the intervention had on average, higher math TAKSscores that the students not receiving the intervention The research design that utilizes Regression Discontinuity Design (RDD) was applied to produce a “gold standard” study without major disruption of normal school work. These research results indicate that applying an intervention program to those students most in need (students not passing the math TAKS), can produce both high quality research results and benefit studentneed. Based on these analyses and given the goals of the program, the Richardson Model for improving math TAKS results can be considered a success. In addition, the successful uregression discontinuity design and the consistency in the increases shown under both the regression discontinuity analyses and Ordinary Least Squares analyses speak to the effectivof the statistical approaches advanced in this research project. Further examination of the district administered Benchmark tests will be made. From this researchers hope to better understand the connection of program implementation, student progress toward learning objectives, and test performance. Finally, larger “N” or number ostudents involved in future projects may help some of the positive trends observed in this preach the level of being statistically significant.
| MathForward, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Richardson ISD, RISD,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2007 | In conclusion, under OLS analyses the study intervention is effective in raising both Type 1 (students who failed the previous year TAKS) and Type 2 (students who passed the previous year TAKS) students’ mean NCE scores. This lends significant support for the versatility and inclusiveness of the intervention when it comes to classroom use. Due to this increasing of the Type 2 Study students’ scores and lack of growth in all other Type 2 students, OLS regression analysis always yield significant results, but regression discontinuity often did not. The closer the Type 1 Control students were to the Type 1 Study students, the more likely the regression discontinuity would fail to find significance. Future work, to validate some of the implications of these analyses, should examine what is happening in the Control classes. This is especially true for the Control 2 classes which in this analysis resemble the Study classes the most at the Type 1 level. Regression discontinuity analyses did show significance at the district level comparison. In general across OLS and RDD analyses, when significance was found the effect of the intervention was in the four to six point range for improved NCE score on a 100 point scale. Even when significance was not reached, the results often were trending in this range. This convergence of results across complementary methodologies lends further credibility both these findings and to the methodologies developed for these analyses. To conclude, the overall results indicate that the MathForward intervention resulted in scores of students below passing in one year improve their scores by 4-6.5 points in the subsequent year. In contrast to other forms of intervention that result in some improvement in outcome for underperforming students but at the apparent expense of students scoring above the passing level, the results of this study suggest scores for all students in classes using the MathForward program improved. All students appeared to benefit from participation in the MathForward program.
| MathForward, Richardson ISD, RISD, TAKS, TI-Navigator, TI-73,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2007 | On October 12, 2006, Texas Instruments (TI) provided comments to the National Math Panel (NMP) on a variety of issues related to its charter for the improvement of mathematics education. Since then, the NMP made the decision to consider technology and its role in math instruction. | MathForward, National Math Panel, Evaluation, Research Review,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | The overall model results indicated that MathForward participation was associated with significantly higher gains in mathematics achievement, when compared to students in the district not in the program. Grade-by-grade analyses suggest that gains associated with being assigned to the program were primarily in Grades 7 and Grade 8. Furthermore, except for Hispanics in 9th grade, there was no evidence from this study that achievement gaps were closing for students in the program, relative to students not in the program. In grade 7, implementation rates were higher than in the other grades, suggesting one possible explanation for this pattern of results. Teachers made more frequent use of the most powerful TI-Navigator tools in this grade level, and 7th grade teachers also were =more likely to adjust their instruction on the basis of formative assessment data collected using TI-Navigator than were teachers in other grades. The fact that the treatment effect was strongest in this grade suggests that the achievement gains are at least partly attributable to the program. These results are suggestive of the promise of the intervention, but the models tested here do not permit us to conclude that we have unbiased estimates of program impact. There were significant differences between the two groups with respect to both student background and prior achievement, and propensity score matching did not yield groups with enough overlap to create a matched comparison group. The use of gain scores can mitigate potential effects of differences, but the fact that program students had more room to grow may have affected the results. Thus, we cannot conclude that the significant gains observed in this study were caused by the program. Because of the threats to internal validity, there are limits to both generalizability and potential significance for policymakers beyond RISD. We know little about how the achievement gains of low-performing students compared to those of students with similar profiles as program students, since so many students in the district participated that a matched comparison group was impossible to construct. Comparison groups from outside the district may yield better estimates of impact in future years, but these students may not share enough of the same policy and district context to yield valid results. The limitations of the study do not prohibit either TI or RISD from drawing lessons from the study. The relationship between implementation and gains suggests the promise of the program for high-implementing classrooms; it also suggests the need to understand how to support such implementation in the future. For RISD, the gains made by students are confirmation of its policy and approach: MathForward students are making significant gains, at least in 7th and 8th grade. The poor results in 9th grade suggest, furthermore, that the district take a closer look to uncover why these results were not as strong as for the other two grades. | MathForward, Richardson ISD, RISD, TI-Navigator, TI-73, TI-84,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2004 | A review of middle school peer-reviewed studies using qualitative and quantitative methods concluded that when technology (including calculators) is used well: -Positive effects can occur on students' attitudes toward learning, confidence in their abilities to do mathematics, engagement with the subject matter, and mathematical achievement and conceptual understanding. -The effect depends on the teacher's skill in integrating technology into the curriculum
| ICT, Middle Grades Math, TIMSS, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | Based on teacher surveys and measures of teacher math knowledge, cumulated across all districts: -There was evidence of a positive association between teacher math content knowledge and student performance on statewide tests -The top benefits of TI-Navigator™ technology, from most teachers’ point of view, were more immediate feedback about what students know and can do and enhanced student conceptual understanding of mathematics. -Teachers varied in the extent that they engaged students in extended discussion of their ideas. When they did engage students, most often discussion was part of whole-class instruction or review. -Most teachers did use the TI-Navigator displays in their class so that students can see the distribution of responses to problems in class. Some used the data to speed up or slow down the pace of instruction.
| Teacher Pedagogical Content Knowledge, TPCK, CKT-M, MathForward, TI-Navigator, TI-73, TI-84,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2001 | An experimental study on CAS in a core calculus course found: -- The experimental group attained a higher mean score than the control group on thirteen of twenty items. -- Among the twenty items, the only significant differences in mean scores (p < 0.05) were found in eight of the items favoring the experimental group.
| TI-89, Calculus, CAS,graphing Calculators |

| | 2007 | The University of Mississippi, with funding provided by Texas Instruments, completed a study on the effects of the TI-Navigator System on student achievement and attitude, in algebra II. Students (n = 386) were divided into control and experimental groups in two sites. In a quasi-experimental design, the control group used TI calculators as appropriate for lessons while the experimental group used TI calculators and the Navigator System in the same lessons. Using a pre-posttest design, students in both groups completed an attitudinal survey and a content test designed to focus on algebraic concepts and skills with specific attention to functions, graphing, systems of equations, and concept of variable. Findings from the study indicated that both groups showed improvement in their content but the experimental group gains were statistically significant at the p < .007 level. Attitudes were not significantly affected between the two groups.
| TI-Navigator, Algebra, Mississippi, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2009 | While it seems clear that instruction on both procedures and concepts is important in mathematics education, the relative importance of each and the order teachers should use each to build instruction with handheld technology such as graphing calculators is still unsettled. | TI-Nspire, handheld technology,graphing calculators,algebra,linear equations |

| | 2008 | A quasi-experimental study of graphing calculator use in grades 7-10 of one German state showed average performance increases were above the expected increase by all participating classes. Average gains were: Class 7: ~12%; Class 8: ~6%; Class 9: ~10%, Class 10: ~12% | TI-84, Middle School Math, Algebra, Germany,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | This is the interim report of a two-year study of TI-84 + TI-Navigator in two schools of the Toronto Catholic Board system, grade 10, academic and applied tracks. A quasi-experiment showed greater achievement for the academic classes than similar non-TI-Navigator classes. However, there was no difference for applied math classes. Final report will be published in 2009. | TI-Navigator, TI-84, Grade 10, Quasi-Experiment, Canada,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2005 | Students showed improvement in the areas of: conceptual understanding, classroom interactions, quantity and quality of responses, time on task and time to start tasks | TI-Navigator, Algebra 1, Hawaii, TI-84,graphing Calculators |

| | 2005 | The study focused on three research questions: - What is the effect of the use of the TI-Navigator technology on eighth-grade Algebra I students’ achievement in the areas of graphing, solving systems of equations, and solving linear equations? - What is the effect of the use of the TI-Navigator technology on eighth-grade Algebra I students’ attitudes and beliefs about the use of calculators and other technology in mathematics, specifically algebra? - What is the effect of the use of the TI-Navigator technology on eighth-grade Algebra I students’ interactions during mathematics class? Two eighth-grade algebra classes were matched in terms of gender and achievement levels by a random process used at the project site. One class was randomly selected to be the control group and the other designated as the experimental group. The control group class used calculators as appropriate to their regular curricular program but were not given access to the TI-Navigator technology. The experimental class used the TINavigator technology daily for two months during the two chapters designated in this study. The calculator used in both classes with the TI-84 Plus Silver Edition. Each student was assigned a calculator for use at school but may not have had access at home. Pre-and post-tests on content knowledge were administered at the appropriate times concurrently with an attitudinal survey. Daily classroom observations were also conducted and recorded using an observation protocol. This summary reports the statistical data taken from the two administrations of the content knowledge tests. The description of how the appropriate statistical procedure was selected is included.
| TI-Navigator, Algebra, TI-84, Hawaii,Graphing Calculators |

| | 2008 | An overview over the current state of research reports and ongoing projects about the integration of graphic tools and computeralgebra in mathematics teaching was the aim of this bibliography report | Graphing Calculators, TI-Nspire, TI-84, TI-89, TI-Voyage, Germany |

| | 2006 | Year 1: Pilot results in the middle school where MathForward was implemented showed increased teacher content knowledge, including knowledge of patterns, functions and algebra. Teachers’ self-reports included: -their teaching effectiveness and techniques improved from mid year to year end -use of TI-Navigator system increased student participation and reduced behavioral problems -students’ algebra readiness increased
| MathForward, TI-Navigator, TI-73, Richardson ISD, RISD, TAKS, Graphing Calculators |

| | 2007 | Year 2: Jr. High program expansion showed: -Growth in teacher knowledge of number & operations was positively associated with the TAKS performance of their students. -Teacher self-reports of confidence improved. -Teacher self-reports of collegial support remained high across the year.
| MathForward, TI-Navigator, TI-73, RISD, Richardson ISD,Graphing Calculators |